Definition: the illegal trade of human beings for purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor
It is modern day slavery and the fastest growing criminal industry in the world. There is a global market of $42.5 billion
Eastern and Western Europe:
Yields about $3 billion dollars each year for criminals, who control around 140,000
people at a time. They are forced to participate in either forced labor or sexual exploitation, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.
The majority involved are young women who are subject to: violent, rape, imprisonment, drugging, and other types of abuse
Major countries involved are: Albania, Moldova, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine, Austria, and Greece.
The typical victim is a young woman born and raised in the developing South or from Central or Eastern Europe. She is lured to a rich country by a trafficker who promises her with a decent, well paying job. Once she has been smuggled to her destination, they take her passport and she is then forced to work as a prostitute to pay off the debt she gained in order to be smuggled into the country. That form of human trafficking/ slavery is called debt bondage.
Poor countries are a good source for traffickers because families are willing to send their children into labor for money. There are thousands of poor children and any opportunity of a better life is taken.
California is the top destination in the U.S for human traffickers that force women and girls into hard labor and sex trade. California is vulnerable to human trafficking because of the international border, ports and airports, the major immigrant population, and a large economy with industries that attract forced labor.
One case of slavery was: hundreds of Mexican girls between the ages of seven and 18, were kidnapped or were lured in by false romantic entrapment by organized criminal sex trafficking gangs. They were brought to San Diego County and were raped over ten years by hundreds of men each day in dozens of brothels.
A major industrial city is a popular place for transportation and selling of sex because of heavy labor, agriculture, tourism (demand hotels and restaurants) and clothing production.
The lack of security of the U.S and Mexico border is a hot spot for smuggling not only Mexican but Asian and European women and children.
There is an average of 2,500 runaway children each day, and they are very vulnerable to the sex trade and kidnapping.
The slave trade sprung in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries when European slave ships transported millions to the Americas and throughout Europe.
North African Pirates conducted Razzaids: raids on European coastal towns to capture Christians and sell them at slave markets in Algeria and Moroco. Berber tribes would occasionally raid agricultural communities for slaves who had been transported northward and sold through the Mediterranean. Some became soldiers and some domestic servants.
Slaves were very important in Rome. They were musicians, tutors, artists, laborers, cooks, and cleaners. Their treatment varied according to owner and job occupation. Some slaves would protect their owners from danger out of gratitude and respect; and some were subject to severe punishments, abuse, and hard labor. Few ran away in search of a better life, even though there were strict laws against hiding slaves. There were even cases of slaves revolting against their owners and killing them (Spartacus). It mostly occurred with the rich landowners who had hundreds of slaves. In the Roman Republic, it was a badge of prestige to own many slaves.
Slavery originated not with the coming of Europeans, but it had been practiced in Africa since ancient times. It is said to come from the prisoners of war who were faced with perpetual servitude. It was common in ancient Egypt and became popular in the new Kingdom, when slave expeditions brought thousands of captives from the upper Nile and were used for labor gangs and as human sacrifices. The use of captives was very common in African societies for forced labor on the south and eastern coast.
-Duiker, William J., Spielvogel, Jackson J. The Essential World History. Boston: Wadsworth, 2005. Print.
-Golsby, Jr., Charles M. “Latina women and child at risk.” Libertadlatina.org. 2010. Web. 7 December 2010. <http://www.libertadlatina.org/LatAm_US_San_Diego_Crisis_Index.htm>
-Qieroiz, Mario. “News and Updates.” Human trafficking.org. 2010. Web. 7 December 2010. <http://www.humantrafficking.org/updates/784>